Sidney Meadows (c. 1699 – 15 November 1792) was a British Member of Parliament.
BiographyHe was the eldest son of Sir Philip Meadows and his wife Dorothy, daughter of Edward Boscawen.
On 2 June 1742 he married Jemima, daughter of Charles Montagu of Durham and granddaughter of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich; they had no children.
Through the influence of his uncle Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth, Meadows was returned to Parliament for Penryn in 1722 and for Truro in 1727. In 1734 he was nominated Member for Tavistock by the Duke of Bedford. All his recorded votes were against the government and he did not stand in 1741. In 1757 he succeeded his father and in 1758 he was appointed Knight Marshal, one of the judges (along with the Lord Steward of the Household) of the Marshalsea Court. He held this office until his death.
Charles Montagu, born about 1658 , died in 1721 in Breda , is a politician, MP for Durham from 1685 to 1687 , then 1695 to 1702 , and an English businessman.
He is the first to use a strict double-entry bookkeeping maneuvers to deal with its two partners, Thomas Fenwick and Thomas Rawling , which held respectively twelfth twelfth and three of the company, as shown in the balance sheet accounting correspondence.
Since 1692 he created a system of wooden carts to transport coal, which today are still traces . It is parallel to the elected parliament. To expand its operations, it bypasses the requirement to go through the company of 26 "free men" , in reality 26 owners , the Company Hostmen of Tyne Valley, located along the river, in the area of Newcastle . Their market share down from 95% in 1700 to 60% a decade later. In a petition to Parliament in 1696, the Company of Hostmen of Newcastle calls for ban of its business.
While its competitors are along the river, Charles Montague innovates by building a route for trucks, along six kilometers of rails and made of wood, which helps connect its mine Gibside (Hutton), too away from the river at the other mine, Benwell , near the River Tyne .
Expected in 1697, only completed in 1699, the construction of this "forest path" made him famous. Before investing in the well Stumplewood in Benwell, it makes financial projections, which are found traces in his correspondence with forecasts for twelve months, anticipating 35,000 tons of sales for revenue 5525 sterling and expenditure of 4070 sterling is a profit of 33%.
Through this process, coal production from the mine site is 70 000 tonnes from 1703 . Charles Montagu became the largest coal producer in the United Kingdom, with majority stakes in two mines, equivalent to a production of 100 000 tonnes. He lives in London, where he oversees the marketing. He kept all the notes and calculations of profitability of mine in his correspondence.
From 1800, a century later, in England, all mine rails for the galleries will be made of carbon steel.
Charles Montagu ceases all parliamentary activity in 1701 . He then set up in March 1701, an association of eight coal producers in north-east England, that to secure its business opportunities intended for before investing . This association, which looks like a cartel, resulting in 1702 in a survey of parliament, due to the high price of coal.
The survey condemns the practice of commercial commissions paid to facilitate the arrival of their coal to London at the expense of competitors .
The son of Charles Montagu has sold the business when true cartel controlling the quantity and price of local coal is established in 1708.
Most of these early entrepreneurs British coal are held away from the great speculations in the capital , particularly on the shares of the Company of the South Seas.
Freeman, Durham 1683; constable, Durham Castle 1684–1715; v.-adm. co. Dur. 1685–90; spiritual chancellor of Durham dioc. 1687–90; sheriff, co. Dur. 1687–1709; alderman, Durham by 1687–d.; seneschal of Durham 1690–1709.2
Commr. for taking subscriptions to land bank, 1696.3
BiographySon of a Huntingdonshire peer, Montagu accumulated numerous administrative offices in the county palatine and see of Durham prior to the Revolution. He owed this advancement to the patronage of his uncle Nathaniel Crew, bishop of Durham, and it was Crew’s continued favour in the 1690s that led to Montagu’s involvement in the north-east coal industry.
Crew’s leases of mining rights to Montagu and his brother Sidney Wortley Montagu established the family among the region’s leading coal proprietors, and by the end of the 17th century Montagu’s pits in north Northumberland and south Durham were producing over 100,000 tons p.a.
His growing wealth is perhaps indicated by his inclusion in 1694 upon a list of subscribers to the Bank of England, in which he was listed as having sufficient stock to qualify for election as a director. The bishop had secured Montagu’s return for Durham in 1685, and presumably assisted his re-election for the borough in 1695.
Suggestions that Montagu stand for Northumberland, where he had gained property through his first marriage, came to nothing. He retained the seat until the end of the reign, but most of the recorded parliamentary activity under the name of ‘Charles Montagu’ applies to Montagu’s prominent Junto Whig cousin and namesake, the future Lord Halifax. Probably due to his recent entry to the Commons, Montagu was initially listed as ‘doubtful’ in the forecast of January 1696 for the division on the council of trade, but this was later amended to indicate his likely support for the Court.
In February he promptly signed the Association. In the following session he voted, on 25 Nov., for the attainder of Sir John Fenwick†, and a comparison of the old and new Commons dating from September 1698 classed him as a Court supporter. He voted on 18 Jan. 1699 against the disbanding bill, and in early 1700 an analysis of the Commons listed him as a follower of his cousin Charles.
In December 1701 Robert Harley* classed him as a Whig. Montagu did not stand for Parliament in 1702 or, as far as can be ascertained, at any later election. Having retired from the Commons, he appears initially to have continued his leading role in the north-east coal trade, being a member of the ‘coal office’ established by a number of coal owners in the early 1700s to help secure markets for their product.
By 1708, however, when a cartel was established to control the production and price of the region’s coal, it seems that his son James (III*) had taken over the management of the family’s mining interests.
Montagu died at Breda* and was buried at Barnwell All Saints, Northamptonshire, on 29 June 1721.
THE MONTAGUS They have been part of our ancestry.
His descendants fought with distinction in the Hundred Years’ War. Thomas de Montacute (d. 1428), Earl of Salisbury, left only a daughter, Alice; she married Richard Neville (who became earl in her right), and their son Richard, Earl of Warwick, was called “the kingmaker” for his dominant role in the Wars of the Roses.
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 1625-72
Civil War Career
- Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich (1648–1688)
- Hon. Sidney Montagu (1650–1727)
- Hon. Oliver Montagu (c.1655–1689)
- Hon. John Montagu (c.1655 – 25 February 1729), Dean of Durham
- Hon. Charles Montagu (c.1658–1721), married first Elizabeth Forester, second Sarah Rogers and had issue by both
- Lady Jemima Montagu, married Sir Philip Carteret (d. 1672)
- Lady Anne Montagu (d. 14 March 1729), married first Sir Richard Edgcumbe, second Christopher Montagu, elder brother of the Earl of Halifax
- Lady Catherine Montagu (c. September 1660 – 15 January 1757), married first Nicholas Bacon, second Rev. Balthazar Gardeman
- Hon. James Montagu
- Lady Paulina Montagu
|Born Jemima Crew, she married Edward Mountagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich,
and Pepys’ patron, in 1642. They had ten children.|
Pepys referred to her as “my Lady” and was influential in the arranged marriage of her daughter Jemima and Sir Philip Carteret in 1665.
Dr. Kate Loveman, English lecturer at the University of Leicester, has found some early English chocolate recipes in the journal of Edward Mountagu, the first Earl of Sandwich, great-great grandfather of John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich, credited with inventing the fine foodstuff that bears the family title on far thinner evidence than recipes written in his own hand.
The most complete recipe is for a frozen chocolate product — a 17th century frappé, if you will — and in an age when freezing was still a subject of extensive scientific study rather than the subject of cookbooks, Sandwich’s frappé may be the earliest English recipe on record for an iced chocolate treat.
Loveman specializes in 17th century English literature, especially the diarists. She was reading the papers of Samuel Pepys who repeatedly mentions drinking chocolate at London coffee houses which served coffee, chocolate and tea, all recent introductions courtesy of the Age of Exploration that were viewed with suspicion for their dubious medical properties/dangers and enthusiasm for their dubious medical properties/tastiness.
On April 24th, 1661, the day after the coronation of King Charles II, Pepys writes:
Waked in the morning with my head in a sad taking through the last night’s drink, which I am very sorry for; so rose and went out with Mr. Creed to drink our morning draft, which he did give me in chocolate to settle my stomach.Chocolate as a hangover cure, sure, why not? This was less than 10 years after chocolate was first brought to England in 1652 and it was already being presented as an aphrodisiac and fertility aid, a link to sensuality that still dominates chocolate advertising to this day. It was also supposed to aid in digestion and to provide healthy nutrients to make “such as drink it often, Fat, and Corpulent, faire and Amiable.” (The fat and corpulent bit was seen as a feature not a bug.)
The Earl of Sandwich was one of Pepys’ patrons. He is often mentioned in the journal, so Loveman decided to follow up by reading the unpublished manuscript of Montagu’s journal. She found a 30-page section dedicated to chocolate written in 1668 after the Earl returned from serving as England’s ambassador to Spain.
So that might have been the reason that our Charles Montagu died in Belgium!
|And I had to add this copy of a portrait of her sourced from the internet at the location:|
A glimpse into the lives of the rich and famous painted in 1929 by Fortunio Matania
Montagu was the first cousin of the father of Samuel Pepys. Pepys started his career as a minor member of the Montagu household and owed his appointments first to the Wardrobe and then as Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board to Montagu's influence. Pepys' diary provides a detailed primary source for Montagu's career in the 1660s.
From "The Montague Mllennium"
Her arranged marriage is intimately documented by Samuel Pepys .
`A typical but particularly well-document example of ... marriage arrangements , as conducted in conservative aristocratic ... circles, concerns those in 1665 for ... Jemima, ... and Philip, the eldest son of Sir George Carteret. The idea ... was first broached by her mother to ... Pepys... and ... the Sandwich parents decided to go ahead with the plans and authorized Pepys to make the first moves. The object was partly financial but more to cement a politico-administrative alliance, since both fathers were now very high officials in the Admiralty. ..
. The financial details were rapidly worked out - a marriage portion of £5,000 from Sandwich and a jointure for Jemima, if she were widowed, of £800 a year from Carteret; the approval of the King and of the Duke of York was secured; and the contract was signed and sealed on 5 July.
It was not until this moment that Jemima was sent for from the country to be informed what fate her parents had decided for her.
The only person bothered by this procedure was her mother, Lady Sandwich, who confided in Pepys her doubts ` whether her daughter will like of it or no, and how troubled she is for fear of it, which I do not fear at all'. Her anxiety seems to have arisen not from doubts about her daughter's happiness, but from the fear of the political damage ... if she unexpectedly turned recalcitrant.
By 15 July... the time had come to introduce the couple... Pepys was put in charge of taking ... Philip... to meet his bride. As a man of the world..., with a winning way with women, whom he was constantly pawing and kissing, he was irritated to discover that he had on his hands a most bashful and tongue-tied young man. So shy was Philip that he did not speak to Jemima or touch her at the introduction or all through dinner. Lord Sandwich suggested leaving the pair alone after dinner ..., but Pepys advised against it; ` lest the lady might be too much surprised'. He was afraid of ... Philip's clumsy bashfulness.
When he took Philip off to bed, he asked him how he liked his bride. The young man expressed approval ` but in the dullest, insipid manner that ever lover did'. Next day... Pepys instructed Philip to take Jemima by the hand and lead her ... from church, but he was still too shy to even approach her. Later on that day, the pair were deliberately left alone for two periods of about an hour each in order to get acquainted as best they could.
Pepys then took Jemima aside and asked her ` how she liked the gentleman and whether she was under any difficulty concerning him. She blushed and hid her face awhile, but at last I forced her to tell me. She answered that she could readily obey what her father and mother had done, which was all she could say, or I expect.' It was indeed... it already had the approval of the King and his brother... Jemima was trapped, as indeed was Philip... the effort to ascertain her feelings was clearly merely perfunctory. ...
Jemima remained solemn and discreet, Philip as shy and tongue-tied as ever. ... On 31 July the pair were married with due pomp... although Pepys found ` the young lady mighty sad', and the wedding dinner a stiff and joyless affair. ... History does not relate how they got on with each other for the rest of their short married life, which lasted until Philip was killed at the battle of Solebay seven years later, leaving his widow with three children.His grandfather bought the property known as Hawes for Philip and Jemima, it has been extended over time.