Mary's parents were William Hadley and Sarah Felton.
Like the Durnford forebears, the Hadley family appear to have been a Saxon family, whose lands, as we know, were seized at the time of the conquest.
The family lands may have been first settled in Shropshire.
The earliest grant to the canons of a small clearing in Hadley Wood and a half virgate in High Hatton, record of which is preserved in a confirmation of William FitzAlan, was in the names of William and Seburga and their son Alan and dates from before c. 1136. William's foundation was, therefore, a little later than the earliest charters of Haughmond Abbey.
The site chosen, a remote clearing in woodland outside the territory of any parish, was strikingly similar. William of Hadley may have imitated his lord: a 13th-century lawsuit in which the canons of Bricett and the canons of Haughmond were at issue over the subjection of Wombridge priory suggests that there may have been personal connections of some kind when the first communities of Augustinian canons were settled in Shropshire, though Wombridge successfully established its independence.
Another grant of land in Cherrington, north of the Weald Moors, where Seburga had a small feoffment, probably belongs to the foundation period, since a papal bull of 1187 attributes it to William and Alan of Hadley jointly. Land in High Ercall was given by Seburga's second son, William of Ercall, after 1187: it became the nucleus of the canons' grange of Shirlowe.
The land for their fourth grange was at Wichley in Uppington; to all appearances this was granted c. 1189 by Roger Mussun after the Peverel claim had been completely extinguished and the manor regranted by Henry II on a serjeanty tenure. When Roger Mussun gave the canons all his waste and woodland in Wichley, as well as the chapel of Uppington, he assumed responsibility for the alms and obligations of the family whose former lands he had received from the king.
His widow gave land in Harrington in Sutton Maddock; this also was a former Peverel manor, regranted by Henry II, and here too Wombridge was heir to the goodwill of the new recipients. In 1186-7 Madoc son of Gervase Goch surrendered to the canons any right he might have had in the church, but a charter of Henry II making an independent grant of the church to Wombridge refers to an earlier agreement made with the canons; the donors may have been honouring a promise made during a time of conflicting legal rights.
In their mission to bring the Christian message to every town and village in Great Britain, the 18th century Methodist preachers travelled extensively. They would arrive at a place, attempt to preach in one of the churches or, failing that, in a market place or at a fair. Their style was engaging and they spoke with authority and grace. Wesley described their work as ‘offering pardon to sinners’.
But they didn’t always receive a warm welcome. While many thousands gathered to hear the message, some reacted negatively. Sometimes fuelled by jealous clergy, or fearful ‘Gentlemen’, and sometimes by a basic reaction of anger, the preachers faced violence fairly regularly. This was a different type of spiritual warfare.
John Wesley in Wednesbury, West Midlands
One famous incident in the life of John Wesley took place in October, 1743.
He writes, ‘Thursday 20th Oct, 1743 – ‘I rode to Wednesbury.
|Rowley Regis 1900|
The history of Rowley Regis began in the 12th century, when a small village grew around the parish church of St. Giles, approximately two miles south-east of the town of Dudley. It began to develop substantially between the two world wars, when thousands of privately owned and local authority houses were built in the surrounding area. During that time Rowley Regis became a borough, and incorporated the communities of Blackheath, Old Hill, and Cradley Heath.
These places were all within the ancient parish of Rowley Regis, which (despite being in the county of Staffordshire) was in the diocese of Worcester. The parish contained the manors of Rowley Regis and Rowley Somery, the latter being part of the barony of Dudley, but the extents of these manors and the relationship between them are not clear.
Major Cassidy and the detachment of the 1st West India Regiment, remained in Guadaloupe until the 10th of October, 1815, on which day they embarked for Barbados, arriving at that island on the 26th. The regiment being then very much below its strength, on account of the heavy losses which it had sustained during the expedition to New Orleans, it was determined to transfer the majority of the privates who remained to the 3rd, 4th, 6th and 8th West India Regiments, and reform the regiment from a body of some 700 American negroes, who, in the late war with the United States, had served with the British, and had been temporarily organised as Colonial Marines.
It was only then discovered that the number of men with whom it was intended to reform the regiment, did not exceed 400; most of whom were of but poor physique, and, moreover, unwilling to engage. At first the authorities determined to force these men to enlist, but ultimately the whole plan was abandoned; and the skeleton of the regiment left Bermuda on the 18th of March to return to the West Indies. It arrived at Barbados on the 1st of April; and the men who had already been transferred being sent back to it, the corps was completed with drafts from the late disbanded Bombor Regiment.
Evidently, the militia no longer included any of the colony's black population, whether free or enslaved, as Lt. Colonel Francis Gore, on assuming the Governorship of Bermuda, felt it advisable to boost the militia's strength by raising a colored corps, though this was not, in fact, done. Despite the state of the Militia at the War's start, on the occasion of an emergency being declared (when strange vessels were spotted lurking offshore), the colonists responded admirably in full strength, standing watch through the night.
The War Office in London had begun the War considering the Bermudians to be of dubious loyalty. This was largely due to the theft of a large quantity of gunpowder from a St. George's magazine during the American War of Independence, in 1775. That powder had been sent to the rebel army of the American colonies, under the Virginian General George Washington, and at his personal request.
The close blood-lines and common history of Bermuda and Virginia, particularly, just as many in 1813 as there were in 1775 were also worrying. The Governor was prompted to try to get the Colonial Assembly to en-act a permanent Militia. Throughout the Militia's history, its strength and efficiency had waxed and waned, more with the response to declarations of wars, and to the scarcity of manpower due to the maritime industry, than with any dictum of the Colonial Assembly.
The British Army in Britain wanted something a little more reliable. The Colonial Assembly, lacking any strong self-interest, and perhaps wary of obliging itself to the maintenance of a force that, with the growth of the Regular Garrison, must become ever less under its control, would only agree to provide funds on a temporary basis.
1814. July. 6 British frigates arrived at Bermuda from "up the Straits" having on board the 7th Fusiliers and 3 other regiments. They were soon joined by those brought on HMS Royal Oak, Dictator, and Diamond.
1814. July. British soldiers under the command of Major General Robert Ross arrived in Bermuda from Britain and camped out near Devonshire Dock in their hundreds, for two weeks on the island. In Murray’s Anchorage, some 18 ships of the line, including the flagship, HMS Tonnant (86 guns, originally the French Le Tonnant, captured by Nelson in 1798 at the Battle of the Nile) and HMS Royal Oak (74) lay at anchor, awaiting a signal for departure for the continent. The Admiral in overall command, Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm, was able to view the entire fleet from his strategic hill-top home at Mount Wyndham in Hamilton Parish, his official residence rented from Stephen Outerbridge.
1814. July. One of the British men-o-war which assembled at Bermuda to attack the American coast was the HMS Royal Oak, with Major (later Lt-Gen) Sir Harry Smith (1787-1860) age 27 who wrote an account of the arrival at Bermuda. She left Bermuda with Rear Admiral Malcolm and 30 or 40 sail of transport, on board troops recently arrived from Southern France, to rendezvous in Chesapeake Bay with the "Tonnant" and the "Surprise". "The wind blowing from the east made it difficult for the "Royal Oak" to leave the anchorage. The Admiral resolved on the boldest thing ever attempted, to take the fleet out through the North East Passage, never done before save by one frigate
1814. Thomas Tudor Tucker, born at Tucker House, St George’s, Bermuda and named for his uncle, the Treasurer of the USA, commanded HMS Cherub in an engagement off Valparaiso in the company with HMS Phoebe, when the USS Essex was captured.
1814. When it was announced that the seat of the Bermuda Government was to be transferred to Hamilton from St. George's, N. T. Butterfield (later, the Bank) moved to Front Street.
|Isle of Wight is off the coast of Southampton, the long island in the top of the photo, ferry and hydrofoil travel regularly.|
Over the years, William tried to get passage back to Australia, in order to reclaim his land grants.
However, those land grants were taken back, along with hundreds of others in 1811, when the 102rd Battalion returned to England. His son and grandson tried for years to get a resolution to the 100 acres granted to Sarah.
Before he left he apparently gave a power of attorney to the surgeon Charles Throsby, in order to get his funds.
Charles Throsby (1777 – 2 April 1828) was an Australian explorer, pioneer and parliamentarian. He opened up much new land beyond the Blue Mountains for colonial settlement. He was a grazier, and became a prominent member of New South Wales society.
Throsby was born in Glenfield near Leicester in England. He was engaged as a surgeon on the convict transport Coromandel carrying 136 male convicts from Portsmouth to Sydney. They departed Portsmouth 12 February 1802 and arrived in Sydney without calling in port on 13 June 1802, with no reported convict deaths under his care.
Soon afterwards he joined the medical staff of the Colony, and in October 1802 he was appointed a magistrate and acting-surgeon at Castle Hill. In August 1804 he was transferred to Newcastle, and in April 1805 was made superintendent there. Towards the end of 1808 he was given a grant of 500 acres (2 km²) at Cabramatta, and in the following year resigned his position at Newcastle.
In 1811 he was employed as agent by the colony's wealthiest landowner, Sir John Jamison, of Regentville. He subsequently paid a visit to England (He obviously avoided William!)
In November 1824 Throsby was one of the 10 landholders and merchants submitted by Governor Brisbane to Earl Bathurst as suitable for appointment for a colonial council, and when the New South Wales Legislative Council was formed in December 1825, three of these were appointed, of whom Throsby was one. His standing in the community was very high and he was the owner of about 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) and large and valuable herds of cattle.
Garnham Blaxcell (1778-1817), merchant and trader, was baptized on 27 May 1778, the sixth son of John Blaxcell of Kelsale, near Saxmundham, Suffolk, England, and his wife Ann, née Groom. He joined the navy in May 1801 and served in H.M.S. Rattlesnake on the Cape of Good Hope Station, before he transferred to H.M.S. Buffalo, in which he arrived in Sydney as acting purser on 16 October 1802.
He quickly won favour with Governor Philip Gidley King who appointed him to several official positions (deputy-commissary, 6 May 1803; acting provost-marshal, 20 December 1804; secretary 1804-06) and in 1806 granted him 1125 acres (455 ha) at Granville, on the Dog Trap Road, known as the Drainwell estate, in addition to 100 acres (40 ha) he had received soon after his arrival.
However, Blaxcell was more interested in commerce than in farming. 'The grain delivered in by him [to the government store], must proceed from traffic only, he not growing a single grain', the deposed commissary, John Palmer, told William Bligh in February 1809, and he alleged other instances of favoured treatment to this partner of John Macarthur.
Blaxcell took an active part in the Bligh rebellion, and was one of the committee that examined the governor's papers after his arrest. During the interregnum he was appointed a magistrate and became the sole auctioneer of the colony. By this time he was one of Sydney's richest merchants, his extensive establishments including a farm at Petersham, a windmill at Pyrmont, a warehouse in George Street, and a 'fine house' in Sydney. At various times he owned several small trading vessels: the Hope, Halcyon, Northumberland, Cyclops, Favourite, Elizabeth and (with John Macarthur) Governor Macquarie.
In 1810 Governor Lachlan Macquarie gave him, with Alexander Riley and D'Arcy Wentworth, a contract to build a general hospital in Sydney, in return for the right to import 45,000 gallons (204,574 litres) of spirits over the next three years. The building, completed in 1816, was severely criticized for its defects and brought no great profit to the contractors. In 1815 Blaxcell proposed another grandiose scheme to form a chartered company to establish settlements and factories in New Zealand. Over-ambitious ventures, however, led to his undoing.
As early as 1809 unsuccessful speculation in trading had obliged him to assign his Drainwell estate to Surgeon Thomas Jamison. In 1810 he became further involved in debts to John Macarthur and other leading colonists, and by 1812 he was unable to meet liabilities for import duties. His finances steadily worsened, but for some years no action could be taken against him because the Civil Court did not sit during the dispute between the governor and Jeffery Hart Bent.
By 1817 Blaxcell's liabilities were said to be £6373, and his assets £5255; he had also defaulted to the government for £2385 in import duties. Finding that the Crown was preparing to recover these debts through the Supreme Court, on 9 April 1817 Blaxcell secretly left for England in the Kangaroo with the improper connivance of her commander, Lieutenant Charles Jeffreys.
Blaxcell's stated intention of recovering money owed to him in London was never realised, for he died at Batavia on 3 October 1817, his death hastened by drink.
Poor William, he had bad advice.
He did have two blocks of land assigned to him, one in Cabramatta, and one in Parramatta district.
LieutenantHhadley (102 nd. Regiment) 25/4/1809 100 acres Parramatta district W. Paterson 29/1/1810
G. W. Evans 14/8/1809 140 acres Bankstown W. Paterson 29/1/1810
G. W. Evans 21/12/1809 519 acres Mulgrave Place W. Paterson 29/1/1810
Thomas Hobby 14/12/1809 640 acres Mulgoa district W. Paterson 29/1/1810
S. Lord 8/8/1809 1170 acres Evan district W. Paterson 29/1/1810
Lieutenant Hadley (102 nd. Regiment) 25/4/1809 269 acres Cabramatta district W. Paterson
Spare a thought for S. Lord, he lost 1170 acres, Thomas Hobby lost 640 acres and
GW Evans lost 669 acres. W Paterson was the Government Surveyor.
Service History and Demographics, 1st Battalion 38th Regiment of Foot
1793: Ireland - Dublin; Belfast; flank companies to the West Indies
1794: Belfast; Bristol; March - to Low Countries; April - Ostend; Courtrai; Ypres; garrison of Ostend; Walheim; line of the River Waal; flank companies at capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe; Berville
1795: Buren; retreat to Bremen; to England; May - Norfolk; September - Chelmsford; Southampton; November - aboard ships for Barbados
1796: Hilsea; March - to West Indies; April - Barbados; Grenada; Morne QuaQua; Vigie
1797: February - capture of Trinidad; The Saintes
1798: The Saintes
1799: The Saintes
1800: The Saintes; June - to England; August - Chichester; October - Lichfield
1801: Recruiting in Lichfield; April - Liverpool; to Ireland; Newry
1803: Newry; Dublin riots; Birr
1805: Birr; Fermoy; Cork; August - to Cape of Good Hope
1806: Cape of Good Hope; Saldanha Bay; Cape Town; to South America; Maldonado
1807: Rio de la Plata; February - MONTEVIDEO; July - Buenos Aires; to Ireland; Fermoy
1808: Fermoy; Cork; July - to Portugal; Mondego Bay; ROLICA; VIMEIRO; into Spain with Moore
1809: Retreat to Corunna; CORUNNA; to England; March - Canterbury; July - Deal; to Walcheren; December - Shorncliffe
1810: January - Shorncliffe; April - Hythe; May - Shorncliffe; August - to Ireland; Fermoy
1812: Fermoy; Cork; May - to Portugal; Lisbon; July - joined field Army; SALAMANCA; Madrid; seige of Burgos; retreat to Portugal
1813: Lamego; many fever detahs; May - advance into Spain; VITTORIA; SAN SEBASTIAN; NIVE
1814: Seige of Bayonne; Bordeaux; August - to Ireland; Cork
1815: Cork; June - to Flanders; advance into France; Paris; Army of Occupation.